Fair Play Publications

  1. Carnes, M., Handelsman, J., & Sheridan, J. (2005). Diversity in academic medicine: A stages of change model. Journal of Women’s Health, 14, 471-475.
  2. Carnes, M., Devine, P.G., Manwell, L.B., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., Ford, C.E., Forscher, P., Isaac, C., Kaatz, A., Magua, W., Palta, M., & Sheridan, J. (2015). Effect of an intervention to break the gender bias habit: A cluster randomized, controlled trial. Academic Medicine, 90(2), 221-230.
  3. Carnes, M., Devine, P.G., Isaac, C., Manwell, L.B., Ford, C.E., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., & Sheridan, J.T. (2012). Promoting institutional change through bias literacy. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 5(2), 63–77.
  4. Kaatz, A., Carnes, M., Guterrez, B., Savoy, J., Samuel, C., Filut, A., & Pribbenow, C.M. (2017). Fair Play : A study of scientific workforce trainers’ experience playing an educational video game about racial bias. CBE Life Sciences Education, 16(2), 27.
  5. Pribbenow, C.M., Caldwell, K.E.H., Dantzler, D.D., Brown, P., & Carnes, M. (2021). Decreasing racial bias through a facilitated game and workshop: The case of Fair Play. Simulation and Gaming, 52(3), 386-402.


Resources for Etiology of Race

  1. Andreasen, R. O. (2000). Race: Biological reality or social construct? Philosophy of Science, 67, S653-S666.
  2. Beckwith, J., Bergamen, K., Carson, M., Doerr, M., Geller, L., et al. Using dialogues to explore genetics, ancestry, and race. The American Biology Teacher, 79(7), 525-537.
  3. Brawley, O. W. (2021). Prostate cancer and the social construct of race. Cancer, 127(9), 1374-1376.
  4. Morning, A. (2007). “Everyone knows it’s a social construct”: Contemporary science and the nature of race. Sociological Focus, 40(4), 436-454.
  5. Witzig, R. (1996). The medicalization of race: Scientific legitimization of a flawed social construct. Annals of Internal Medicine, 125(8), 675-679.



Resources for Implicit Bias and Stereotypes

  1. Ashburn-Nardo, L., Morris, K. A., & Goodwin, S. A. (2008). The confronting prejudiced responses (CPR) model: Applying CPR in organizations. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(3). 332-342.
  2. Biernat, M., Collins, E.C., Katzarska-Miller, I., & Thompson, E.R. (2009). Race-based shifting standards and racial discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 53(1), 16-28.
  3. Carr, P. B., Dweck, C. S., & Pauker, K. (2012). “Prejudiced” behavior without prejudice? Beliefs about the malleability of prejudice affect interracial interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(3), 452-471.
  4. Carli, L. L., Alawa, L., Lee, Y., Zhao, B., & Kim, E. (2016). Stereotypes about gender and science: Women scientists. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(2), 244-260.
  5. Carton, A. M., & Rosette, A. S. (2011). Explaining bias against black leaders: Integrating theory on information processing and goal-based stereotyping. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1141-1158.
  6. Chapman, E.N., Kaatz, A., & Carnes, M. (2013). Physicians and implicit bias: How doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(11), 1504–1510.
  7. DePass, A. L., & Chubin, D. L. (2017). Overcoming bias. Understanding Interventions, 8(1), 2647.
  8. Devine, P.G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(1), 5-18.
  9. Devine, P.G., & Elliot, A.J. (1995). Are racial stereotypes really fading? The Princeton trilogy revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(11), 1139-1150.
  10. Devine, P.G., Plant, E.A., & Buswell, B.N. (2000). Breaking the prejudice habit: Progress and obstacles. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), “The Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology” Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination, 185-208.
  11. Devine, P.G., Forscher, P.S., Austin, A.J., & Cox, W.T.L. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1267–1278.
  12. Eagly, A. H., & Sczesny, S. (2009). Stereotypes about women, men, and leaders: Have times changed?In M. Barreto, M. K. Ryan, & M. T. Schmitt (Eds.), Psychology of women book series. The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality (p. 21–47). American Psychological Association.
  13. Eaton, A.A., Saunders, A.F., Jacobson, R.K., West, K. (2019). How gender and race stereotypes impact the advancement of scholars in STEM: Professors’ biased evaluations of physics and biology post-doctoral candidates. Sex Roles, 82, 127-141.
  14. Freng, S., & Willis-Esqueda, C. (2011). A question of honor: Chief Wahoo and American Indian stereotype activation among a university based sample. The Journal of Social Psychology, 151(2), 577-591.
  15. Ghavami, N., & Peplau, L.A. (2013). An intersectional analysis of gender and ethnic stereotypes: Testing three hypotheses. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(1), 113-127.
  16. Kang, O., & Rubin, D.L. (2009). Reverse linguistic stereotyping: Measuring the effect of listener expectations on speech evaluation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 58, 502-521.
  17. King, E.B., Madera, J.M., Hebl, M.R., Knight, J.L., & Mendoza, S.A. (2006). What’s in a name? A multiracial investigation of the role of occupational stereotypes in selection decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(5), 1145-1159.
  18. Legault, L., Gutsell, J.E., & Inzlicht, M., (2011). Ironic effects of antiprejudice messages: How motivational interventions can reduce (but also increase) prejudice. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1472-1477.
  19. Leslie, S.J., Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., Freeland, E. (2015). Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines. Science, 347(6219), 262-265.
  20. Reeves, A.N. (2014). Written in black & white: Exploring confirmation bias in racialized perceptions of writing skills. Nextions Yellow Paper Series.
  21. Rubin, D.L. (1992). Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduate’s judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education, 33, 511-531.
  22. Sevo, R., Chubin, D.E., (2008). Bias Literacy: A review of concepts in research on discrimination.
  23. Singh J. (1993). Boundary role ambiguity: Facets, determinants, and impacts. Journal of Marketing, 57(2), 11-31.
  24. Todd, A.R., & Bodenhausen, G.V. (2011). Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 1027-42.
  25. Wilson, J.P., Hugenberg, K., & Rule, N.O. (2017). Racial bias in judgments of physical size and formidability: From size to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(1), 59-80.



Resources for Promoting Behavioral Change

  1. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
  2. Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy mechanism in physiological activation and health-promoting behavior. In J. Madden, IV. (Ed.), Neurobiology of learning, emotion, and affect, 229-270.
  3. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.
  5. Bem, D. J., & Allen, A. (1974). On predicting some of the people some of the time: The search for cross-situational consistencies in behavior. Psychological Review, 81(6), 506-520.


Resources for Strategies to Empower Graduate Students and Postdocs

  1. Burt, B., McKen, A., Burkhart, J., Hormell, J., &Knight, A. (2019). Black men in engineering graduate education: Experiencing racial microaggressions with the advisor-advisee relationship. The Journal of Negro Education, 88(4). 493-508.
  2. Burt, B. A., Williams, K. L., & Smith W. A. (2018). Into the storm: Ecological and sociological impediments to black males’ persistence in engineering graduate programs. American Educational Research Journal, 55(5). 965-1006.
  3. Burt, B. A., Roberson, J. J., Johnson, J. T., & Bonanno, A. (2020). Black Men in Engineering Graduate Programs: A Theoretical Model of the Motivation to Persist. Teachers College Record, 58.
  4. Burt, B. A., Stone, B. D., Motshubi, R., & Baber, L. D. (2020). STEM validation among underrepresented students: Leveraging insights from a STEM diversity program to broaden participation. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.
  5. Campbell, C., Dortch, D., & Burt, B. A. (2018). Reframing rigor: A modern look at challenge and support in higher education. New Directions for Higher Education, 181. 11-23.
  6. Charleston, L., & Leon, R. (2016). Constructing self-efficacy in STEM graduate education. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10(2). 152-166.
  7. Gazley, J. L., & Campbell, P. B. (2020). The role of resilience in black men’s success in STEM graduate programs. The Journal of Negro Education, 89(3). 360-372.
  8. Gazley, J. L., et al. (2014). Beyond preparation: Identity, cultural capital, and readiness for graduate school in the biomedical sciences. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(8). 1021-1048.
  9. Gomez, M. L., Khurshid, A., Freitag, M. B., & Lachuk, A. J. (2011). Microaggressions in students’ lives: How are they encountered and their consequences. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 1189-1199.
  10. Greier-Reed, T., Said, R., & Quiñones, M. (2021). From antiblackness to cultural health in higher education. Education Sciences, 11(2), 57.
  11. Ragland Woods, C. C., Chronister, K. M., Perez Grabow, A., Woods, W. E., & Woodlee, K. (2021). Racial battle fatigue: The experiences of black/African American, biracial black, and multiracial black identified graduate students. Journal of Black Psychology, 47(4-5). 219-243.


Resources for Gameplay

  1. Coren, M. (2011). “Foldit gamers solve riddle of HIV enzyme within 3 weeks: The online game poses protein-folding puzzles, and participants provided insights recently that solved the structure of an enzyme involved in reproduction of HIV.” Retrieved Oct 23, 2015 from:
  2. Holmes, E.A., & James, E.L. (2009). Can playing the computer game “Tetris” reduce the build-up of flashbacks for trauma? A Proposal from cognitive science. PLoS ONE, 4(1), e4153.
  3. Khatib, F., & DiMaio, F. (2011). Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 18(10), 1175–1177.
  4. Tate, R., & Haritatos, J. (2009). HopeLab’s approach to Re-Mission. International Journal of Learning and Media, 1(1), 29-35.


Resources for Bystander Intervention

  1. Ashburn-Nardo, Morris & Goodwin, 2008; Bowes-Sperry & O’Leary-Kelly, 2005; and The Bystander Leadership Program (FIU-ADVANCE, 2018).



Resources for Responsible Conduct in Research (RCR):